NMN & NAD+
What is NMN?
NMN's full name nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinamide mononucleotide is a naturally occurring bioactive nucleotide. NMN is the precursor of the synthesis of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, also known as coenzyme I). NAD+ is the coenzyme of many important metabolic enzymes in human cells, and the only substrate of PARP, the DNA repair enzyme, and Sirtuins, the longevity protein. NAD+ is also important for mitochondria, which are the energy source of cells. Produces chemical energy that our bodies use. Lower concentrations of NAD+ can lead to many age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, so more NMN needs to be added with increasing age.
NMN is ubiquitous in daily food, such as broccoli, Chinese cabbage, tomato, avocado, raw beef and so on, which are rich in NMN. In 2013, David Sinclair, a tenured professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and director of the Center for Aging Biology in the Paul Glenn Lab, and his team reported in Cell, a leading journal in the life sciences, After one week of oral administration of NMN in older mice aged 22 months (equivalent to 60 years in humans), levels of NAD+ increased and key biochemical parameters related to mitochondrial homeostasis and muscle function were restored to a state equivalent to that of young mice aged 6 months (equivalent to 20 years in humans). Professor Sinclair was named one of time magazine's most influential people in the world in 2014.
In recent years, international authoritative academic journals such as Science, Nature and Cell have continuously published human and animal studies, proving from various perspectives that NMN can effectively increase and restore the level of NAD+ in vivo, significantly delay aging and prevent various neuronal degeneration diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. And fundamentally adjust and improve the various symptoms caused by aging.
The main physiological functions of NAD+ include:
Catalysis generates more than 95% of the energy of life activities
Through the cell tricarboxylic acid cycle, fat β oxidation, etc., provides 95% of the body's energy. It plays an essential role in cell energy metabolism, oxidative stress regulation and signaling.
2. Repair damaged DNA
NAD+ is the sole substrate of DNA repair enzyme PARP and longevity protein Sirtuins, which has significant effects on DNA repair, gene expression, cell cycle development, cell survival, chromosomal reconstruction and gene stability.
3. Activating longevity protein
All 7 Sirtuins (Sirtuins 1-7) are activated and play an important role in cell resistance, energy metabolism, prevention of cell mutation, apoptosis and senescence.
NAD+ decreases with age, leading to senescence
The scientific consensus is that with age, the level of NAD+ in the body continues to decline, leading to the deterioration of the function of mitochondria, the "generator" of energy in the organism, triggering aging and causing various bodily functions to develop problems.
NAD+ levels drop dramatically with age, leading to accelerated aging from the age of 30, with an increased risk of wrinkles, muscle relaxation, fat accumulation and aging of heart and brain function.
NMN - the most direct and effective way to promote NAD+
NMN (β-nicotinamide mononucleotide), the most direct precursor of NAD+, is also a naturally occurring substance in all organisms, including the human body and various foods. However, the amount of NMN in food is very small, so it can not rely on the daily diet to get enough supplement.
After oral administration, NMN can effectively and quickly enter the blood and be used in other body tissues to improve the level of NAD+ that decreases with age and rewrite the aging process.
According to Professor David Sinclair, "After seven days of NMN intake, the muscle activity of a two-year-old mouse returns to the same level as that of a six-month-old, which is equivalent to a 60-year-old man returning to a 20-year-old."
Based on NMN's DNA-repairing properties, NASA began research in 2017 to use it to protect astronauts from cosmic rays. Previous studies show that in the next four years to and from Mars, high-energy particle radiation to astronauts in space can cause DNA damage at least more than 5% of the body cells die and significant aging, and nearly one hundred percent because of cell mutation caused serious consequences, and NMN is expected to become the key to solve this challenge.